Depuis le jour de sa mort en 1945, les rumeurs ne cessent de s'accumuler sur les possibilités qu'Hitler ne soit pas décédé dans son bunker. Serving with Jastas 5, 26, and 27, he continued to win victories. Epenstein acquired the minor title of Ritter (knight) von Epenstein through service and donations to the Crown. Considering his request an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. "[123] He then appointed Karl Dönitz, the Navy's commander-in-chief, as president of the Reich and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. 4. [132], On several occasions over the course of the trial, the prosecution showed films of the concentration camps and other atrocities. On 18 October, Hitler named Göring as Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan to undertake this task. He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1 (Jasta 1), the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen. Tiara and pontifical vestments are a perfect fit. [164][165] One joke claimed that he had sent a wire to Hitler after his visit to the Vatican: "Mission accomplished. [47] Göring demanded that the detainees should be shot, but Rudolf Diels, head of the Prussian political police, ignored the order. [96] After the long, but successful, Battle of Smolensk, Hitler ordered Army Group Centre to halt its advance to Moscow and temporarily diverted its Panzer groups north and south to aid in the encirclement of Leningrad and Kyiv. [130] During breaks in the proceedings, Göring tried to dominate the other defendants, and he was eventually placed in solitary confinement when he attempted to influence their testimony. At one point, he was ordered to surrender the aircraft to the Allies; he refused. Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide on 30 April 1945, a few hours after a hastily arranged wedding. [65] Schacht resigned on 8 December 1937,[66] and Walther Funk took over the position, as well as control of the Reichsbank. Though he liked to be called "der Eiserne" (the Iron Man), the once dashing and muscular fighter pilot had become corpulent. Göring was certified a dangerous drug addict and was placed in Långbro asylum on 1 September 1925. Following the creation of the Wehrmacht, the navy was renamed the Kriegsmarine. [99] The Battle of Stalingrad, a major turning point of the war,[100] began on 23 August 1942 with a bombing campaign by the Luftwaffe. Though some airlifts were able to get through, the amount of supplies delivered never exceeded 120 tons per day. Commander of the Nazi Navy and briefly President of Germany, Dönitz was found guilty of engaging in wars of aggression and war crimes, including unrestricted submarine warfare. One of his first acts as a cabinet minister was to oversee the creation of the Gestapo, which he ceded to Heinrich Himmler in 1934. Witnesses, including Paul Koerner and Erhard Milch, tried to portray Göring as a peaceful moderate. Göring did not want Fritsch to be appointed to that position and thus be his superior. Die Renten wurden gemäß einem Dekret von Karl Dönitz aus dem Jahr 1945 gezahlt. [19], Like many other German veterans, Göring was a proponent of the Stab-in-the-back legend, the belief which held that the German Army had not really lost the war, but instead was betrayed by the civilian leadership: Marxists, Jews, and especially the Republicans, who had overthrown the German monarchy. [134] During cross-examination, chief prosecutor Robert H. Jackson read out the minutes of a meeting that had been held shortly after Kristallnacht, a major pogrom in November 1938. Seriously wounded in the hip in aerial combat, he took nearly a year to recover. Zur Person - Karl Dönitz Der 1891 in Berlin-Grünau geborene Karl Dönitz wurde 1910 Mitglied der Kaiserlichen Marine. For other uses, see, German Nazi war criminal, politician and military leader, Articles and topics related to Hermann Göring, National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB), National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), The swastika was a badge which the count and some friends had adopted at school, and he adopted it as a family emblem. Adolf Hitler (Braunau am Inn, 20 april 1889 – Berlijn, 30 april 1945) was een in Oostenrijk-Hongarije geboren Duits politicus en de leider van de Nationaalsocialistische Duitse Arbeiderspartij (NSDAP). [85], The UK had declared war on Germany immediately after the invasion of Poland. [81] Later in the day, speaking to the Reichstag, Hitler designated Göring as his successor as Führer of all Germany, "If anything should befall me",[82] with Hess as the second alternate. [161] As a member of the Prussian Council of State, Speer was required to donate a considerable portion of his salary towards the Council's birthday gift to Göring without even being asked. [43] In May 1931, Hitler sent Göring on a mission to the Vatican, where he met the future Pope Pius XII.[44]. For Göring was often, indeed almost always, the moving force, second only to his leader. Das Boot ist der Titel eines Romans von Lothar-Günther Buchheim, der die persönlichen Erlebnisse des Autors als Kriegsberichterstatter auf verschiedenen U-Booten literarisch verarbeitet; er beruht auf den damals von Buchheim gemachten Notizen. [91] After their defeat in the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe attempted to defeat Britain via strategic bombing. dong 1 (dông, dŏng) n. pl. Donitz’s strategy was to have several U-boats lurking and waiting for Allied ships, preferably in convoys, to pass. Göring's elder siblings were Karl, Olga, and Paula; his younger brother was Albert. 1955. [133] When testifying on his own behalf, Göring emphasised his loyalty to Hitler, and claimed to know nothing about what had happened in the concentration camps, which were under Himmler's control. After Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Göring was named as minister without portfolio in the new government. [143], Göring's body, as with those of the men who were executed, was displayed at the execution ground for the witnesses of the executions. They were assigned as a team to FFA 25 in the Crown Prince's Fifth Army. Göring had become a violent morphine addict; Carin's family were shocked by his deterioration. [70] Hitler used the dismissals as an opportunity to reshuffle the leadership of the military. In addition to his Iron Crosses (1st and 2nd Class), he received the Zähringer Lion with swords, the Friedrich Order, the House Order of Hohenzollern with swords third class, and finally, in May 1918, the coveted Pour le Mérite. Im Nürnberger Hauptkriegsverbrecherprozess wird er zu lebenslanger Haft verurteilt. Dans son testament, le Führer désigne comme successeur l'amiral Karl Dönitz et demande que son corps soit brûlé. Dönitz, Karl (Amiral) : Chef du gouvernement après la mort de Hitler, il accepte la capitulation de l'Allemagne nazie. Sensing its implications, Koller immediately flew to Berchtesgaden to notify Göring of this development. [Origin unknown.] [14] He finished the war with 22 victories. At this time, Carin—who liked Hitler—often played hostess to meetings of leading Nazis, including her husband, Hitler, Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, and Ernst Röhm. [126] Top Nazi officials were transferred in September to Nuremberg, which was to be the location of a series of military tribunals beginning in November. During the winter of 1920–1921, he was hired by Count Eric von Rosen to fly him to his castle from Stockholm. Marinus van der Lubbe—a Communist radical—was arrested and claimed sole responsibility for the fire. Jews would be segregated into ghettos or encouraged to emigrate, and their property would be seized in a programme of Aryanization. He bypassed the economics ministry in his policy-making decisions, to the chagrin of Hjalmar Schacht, the minister in charge. [125], Göring was flown to Camp Ashcan, a temporary prisoner-of-war camp housed in the Palace Hotel at Mondorf-les-Bains, Luxembourg. Raeder wird als Oberbefehlshaber entlassen und durch Karl Dönitz abgelöst. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The award reduced him to tears.[163]. In 1916 he was transferred to the submarine forces. [58] By this time, the SA numbered over two million men. Göring immediately called for a crackdown on Communists. Karl Dönitz was born on 16 September 1891 near Berlin and went into the Imperial German Navy in 1911. He had conversations with the Hungarian government that summer as well, discussing their potential role in an invasion of Czechoslovakia. [139] He committed suicide with a potassium cyanide capsule the night before he was to be hanged. Stivers later said that he did not know what was in the pill until after Göring's suicide. The reverse side of the flag had the Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes ("Grand Cross of the Iron Cross") surrounded by a wreath between four Luftwaffe eagles. [142] In 2005, former US Army Private Herbert Lee Stivers, who served in the 1st Infantry Division's 26th Infantry Regiment—the honour guard for the Nuremberg Trials—claimed he gave Göring "medicine" hidden inside a fountain pen that a German woman had asked him to smuggle into the prison. He is nicknamed The Jew Hunter due to his involvement in hunting down Jews in France during WWII. Göring was born on 12 January 1893[4] at the Marienbad Sanatorium in Rosenheim, Bavaria. Why did we burn its people? Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler requesting his permission to assume leadership of the Reich. Upon being named Plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan in 1936, Göring was entrusted with the task of mobilizing all sectors of the economy for war, an assignment which brought numerous government agencies under his control and helped him become one of the wealthiest men in the country. [24][25] He was given command of the Sturmabteilung (SA) as the Oberster SA-Führer in 1923. By longstanding tradition, the Nazis were thus entitled to select the President of the Reichstag, and elected Göring to the post. Göring met Mussolini, who expressed an interest in meeting Hitler, who was by then in prison.[34]. While receiving treatment for his injuries, he developed an addiction to morphine which persisted until the last year of his life. In May 1924 they visited Rome, via Florence and Siena. The campaign failed, and Sea Lion was postponed indefinitely on 17 September 1940. By this time, Göring's hunting lodge Carinhall had been evacuated, the building destroyed,[113] and its art treasures moved to Berchtesgaden and elsewhere. After the Fall of France in 1940, he was bestowed the specially created rank of Reichsmarschall, which gave him seniority over all officers in Germany's armed forces. As de la aviación durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, fue galardonado con la codiciada medalla Pour le Mérite. Other leaders, such as Hess and Ribbentrop, were envious of his popularity. Karl Dönitz trekt zijn vloot van U-boten terug uit het noordelijk deel van de Atlantische Oceaan. [62], One of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which had been in place since the end of World War I, stated that Germany was not allowed to maintain an air force. Hans-Ulrich Rudel, the top Stuka pilot of the war, recalled twice meeting Göring dressed in outlandish costumes: first, a medieval hunting costume, practicing archery with his doctor; and second, dressed in a red toga fastened with a golden clasp, smoking an unusually large pipe. Two years in, aboard the UB-68 in the Mediterranean, he was sunk and taken prisoner near Malta. [23] After Göring met Adolf Hitler and joined the Nazi Party in 1922, they moved to Obermenzing, a suburb of Munich.[24]. [160] Armaments minister Albert Speer recalled that guests brought expensive gifts such as gold bars, Dutch cigars, and valuable artwork. Detention report and Mugshots of Karl Dönitz, 1945 . [114] Göring arrived at his estate at Obersalzberg on 22 April, the same day that Hitler, in a lengthy diatribe against his generals, first publicly admitted that the war was lost and that he intended to remain in Berlin to the end and then commit suicide. As a result of this promotion, he was the highest-ranking soldier in Germany until the end of the war. I made him the head of my SA. [110] On D-Day (6 June 1944), the Luftwaffe only had some 300 fighters and a small number of bombers in the area of the landings; the Allies had a total strength of 11,000 aircraft. Göring was often hired for private flights. The Reichstag Fire Decree, passed the next day on Hitler's urging, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. [12], After completing the pilot's training course, Göring was assigned to Jagdstaffel 5. Göring was freed on 5 May by a passing Luftwaffe unit, and he made his way to the US lines in hopes of surrendering to them rather than to the Soviets. By targeting oil refineries and rail communications, Allied bombers crippled the German war effort by late 1944. [29] Inspired by Benito Mussolini's March on Rome, the Nazis attempted to seize power on 8–9 November 1923 in a failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. [32] This was the beginning of his morphine addiction, which lasted until his imprisonment at Nuremberg. As part of the plan, the Royal Air Force (RAF) had to be neutralized. [16], On 7 July 1918, following the death of Wilhelm Reinhard, successor to Manfred von Richthofen, Göring was made commander of the "Flying Circus", Jagdgeschwader 1. [77] In Britain and the United States, some viewed Göring as more acceptable than the other Nazis and as a possible mediator between the western democracies and Hitler. Göring asked for the post of War Minister, but was turned down; he was appointed to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall. [94] Hitler and his top staff were sure that the campaign would be over by Christmas, and no provisions were made for reserves of men or equipment. Milch stated it had been impossible to oppose Hitler or disobey his orders; to do so would likely have meant death for oneself and one's family. [17] His arrogance made him unpopular with the men of his squadron. Göring was found guilty on all four counts and was sentenced to death by hanging. A large reception was held the night before at the Berlin Opera House. He was sentenced to 10 years. Göring's mother became Epenstein's mistress around this time, and remained so for some fifteen years. [144][145][146], Göring's name is closely associated with the Nazi plunder of Jewish property. When the Sixth Army was surrounded by the end of November in Operation Uranus, Göring promised that the Luftwaffe would be able to deliver a minimum of 300 tons of supplies to the trapped men every day. [169], In July 1941, Göring issued a memo to Reinhard Heydrich ordering him to organise the practical details of the Final Solution to the "Jewish Question". [108] Hitler began excluding him from conferences, but continued him in his positions at the head of the Luftwaffe and as plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan. In other cases, he collected bribes for allowing others to steal Jewish property. Epenstein provided the Göring family, who were surviving on Heinrich's pension, first with a family home in Berlin-Friedenau,[7] then in a small castle called Veldenstein, near Nuremberg. November 2011, 17:25 Uhr 0. In 1916, having served on battlecruisers and at an airfield, Donitz asked to be transferred to submarines. Having served as a submarine officer in World War One, when Adolf Hitler came to power Dönitz was chosen to create a new U-boat fleet . [116], OKW operations chief Alfred Jodl was present for Hitler's rant, and notified Göring's chief of staff, Karl Koller, at a meeting a few hours later. Hitler had always been in favour of a takeover of Austria, his native country. After spending most of 1919 living in Denmark, he moved to Sweden and joined Svensk Lufttrafik, a Swedish airline.