Examining DNA from a finger bone excavated in Siberia, researchers concluded that the Denisovans migrated from Siberia to tropical parts of Asia and that they interbred with modern humans in South-East Asia 44,000 years BP, before Australia separated from New Guinea approximately 11,700 years BP. [43][44][45], The term Indigenous Australians refers to Aboriginal Australians as well as Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the term is conventionally only used when both groups are included in the topic being addressed, or by self-identification by a person as Indigenous. ", "Understanding barriers to health care: a review of disparities in health care services among indigenous populations", "An Aboriginal youth suicide prevention project in rural Victoria", "Suicide Prevention in Australian Aboriginal Communities: A Review of Past and Present Programs", "What Traditional Indigenous Elders Say About Cross-cultural Mental Health Training", "Closing the Gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth Suicide: A Social-Emotional Wellbeing Service Innovation Project", "Aboriginal perceptions of social and emotional wellbeing programs: A systematic review of literature assessing social and emotional wellbeing programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians perspectives", "Three in four people hold negative view of Indigenous people", "Start exploring Australian Aboriginal culture", "Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies", Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013, Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia - Stories from the Census, 2016, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islanders, Australian Aboriginal Progress Association, National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, Office of the Registrar of Indigenous Corporations, Northern Territory National Emergency Response, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aboriginal_Australians&oldid=1017034747, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Australian English, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with imported freely licensed text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 April 2021, at 12:16. The study concluded that the Warlpiri are descended from ancient Asians whose DNA is still somewhat present in Southeastern Asian groups, although greatly diminished. They contributed DNA to Aborigines along with present-day New Guineans and an indigenous tribe in the Philippines known as Mamanwa. Els han populà il continent avant radund 40’000 enfin 50’000 onns. There is, however, huge genetic diversity among Aboriginal Australians based on geographical distribution. ), and others on shared languages and cultural practices spread over large regions defined by ecological factors. They also use the Sun, the Moon and the stars to tell the time. Sie besiedelten vor etwa 40.000 bis 50.000 Jahren den Kontinent. This indicates that Australia was isolated for a long time from the rest of Southeast Asia, and remained untouched by migrations and population expansions into that area. These also coincide with geographical regions of varying sizes. Die Wurzeln der Punktmalerei liegen in den traditionellen Rindenbildern, der Körperbemalung sowie den Fels- und … Gene flow across the island-dotted 150-kilometre-wide (93 mi) Torres Strait, is both geographically plausible and demonstrated by the data, although at this point it could not be determined from this study when within the last 10,000 years it may have occurred – newer analytical techniques have the potential to address such questions. Tungepiercinger er en del af deres hellige ritualer. Studies regarding the genetic makeup of Aboriginal Australian people are still ongoing, but evidence has suggested that they have genetic inheritance from ancient Eurasian but not more modern peoples, share some similarities with Papuans, but have been isolated from Southeast Asia for a very long time. De skal gøre indtryk på de usynlige ånder. Taiwanese indigenous peoples, also known as the Formosan people, Taiwanese Austronesians, Yuanzhumin or Gāoshān people, are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number almost 569,008 or 2.38% of the island's population. These peoples have a broadly shared, though complex, genetic history, but it is only in the last two hundred years that they have been defined and started to self-identify as a single group. [55][56], According to the Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues, 75% of Australians regardless of gender, age, ethnicity, occupation, religion, education level, geography or political leanings hold a negative view of Indigenous Australians. Bei der Ankunft der Europäer lebten die Aborigines schon seit wenigstens 40.000 Jahren in Australien. This helps protect people to survive the side-effects of infection. Auf Fremde wirken die Bilder vor allem bunt und … For historical and contemporary information which relates to the indigenous population in general, including the Torres Strait Islanders, see, Indigenous Australians who live on the Australian mainland, Tasmania, and Tiwi Islands, Clockwise from upper left: traditional lands, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, List of Australian Aboriginal group names, language group or specific dialect spoken, saltwater, freshwater, rainforest or desert peoples, Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts (ACPA), Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology, List of Aboriginal missions in New South Wales, List of massacres of Indigenous Australians, National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award, "Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians", "4713.0 – Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians", "Languages of Aboriginal And Torres Strait Islander Peoples – a Uniquely Australian Heritage", "Community, identity, wellbeing: The report of the Second National Indigenous Languages Survey", "Yolngu are People 2: They're not Clip Art", "An Aboriginal Australia Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia", "The first Aboriginal genome sequence confirms Australia's native people left Africa 75,000 years ago", "What is a 'continuous culture'... and are Aboriginal cultures the oldest? [12], The Rasmussen study also found evidence that Aboriginal peoples carry some of the genes associated with the Denisovans (a species of human related to but distinct from Neanderthals) of Asia; the study suggests that there is an increase in allele sharing between the Denisovan and Aboriginal Australian genomes, compared to other Eurasians and to Africans. Die Flagge der Aborigines ist das Symbol der Ureinwohner Australien. The study authors sequenced 13 Aboriginal Australian Y chromosomes using recent advances in gene sequencing technology, investigating their divergence times from Y chromosomes in other continents, including comparing the haplogroup C chromosomes. Man sagt jetzt Aboriginal. Heute kann man Malern bei der Arbeit zusehen. Dabei zeigt die Überlieferung eine Mischung aus Gründungsmythos und fiktiver Geschichtsschreibung. [31], Dispersing across the Australian continent over time, the ancient people expanded and differentiated into distinct groups, each with its own language and culture. They attributed the disparity between their results and previous findings to improvements in technology; none of the other studies had utilized complete Y chromosome sequencing, which has the highest precision. It is generally used when both groups are included in the topic being addressed. 410.000 aboriginere i Australien (2001). Anthropologists have encountered many difficulties in trying to define what constitutes an Aboriginal people/community/group/tribe, let alone naming them. The term "aborigines", as official name, appeared in the English version of the Constitution of British Malaya and the laws of the country. In der Mitte befindet sich eine gelbe Scheibe. Deutsch Wikipedia. [53][54] Similarly, culturally-relative programs targeting indigenous youth have actively challenged suicide ideation among younger indigenous populations, with many social and emotional wellbeing programs using cultural information to provide coping mechanisms and improving mental health. Past studies have found that many indigenous leaders and community members, do in fact, want more culturally-aware health care programs. They use songs and stories that are passed from generation to generation. They found that the ancestors of the Aboriginal Australian population split off from other Eurasians between 62,000 and 75,000 BP, whereas the European and Asian populations split only 25,000 to 38,000 years BP, indicating an extended period of Aboriginal genetic isolation. Dass die Touristen dort trotzdem geduldet werden, zeigt die zwangsläufige Anpassung der Aborigines-Kultur an die Veränderung ihrer Umwelt seit der Kolonialisierung. These communities have between 20 and 300 inhabitants and are often closed to outsiders for cultural reasons. They also live throughout the world as part of the Australian diaspora. [20] A 2014 Cambridge University study found that a beneficial mutation in two genes which regulate thyroxine, a hormone involved in regulating body metabolism, helps to regulate body temperature in response to fever. Ähnliches mit Eiern wilder Krokodile. The long-term viability and resilience of Aboriginal communities in desert areas has been discussed by scholars and policy-makers. Aborigines ist eine verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Australiens. Sie dürfen sie essen, weil traditionelle … Aborigines sind kein einheitliches Volk, sondern bestehen au … Deutsch Wikipedia. Dabei handelt es sich um eine zeitgenössische Kunstform, die erst zu Beginn der 1970er Jahre in der Stadt Papunya in Zentralaustralien entstanden ist. Foto Aborigines: Steve Evans from Citizen of the World – Australia: Aboriginal Culture 011 Uploaded by berichard; CC 2.0 via Wikipedia Aborigines — Flagge der Aborigines Die Aborigines (englisch [ˌæbəˈɹɪdʒɪniːz], „Ureinwohner“) sind die Ureinwohner Australiens. The Torres Strait Islands are mostly part of Queensland but have a separate governmental status. [34] According to noted anthropologist, archaeologist and sociologist Harry Lourandos, historically, these groups lived in three main cultural areas, the Northern, Southern, and Central cultural areas. ", "The state of Australia's Indigenous languages – and how we can help people speak them more often", The Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander History, Society, and Culture, "Chapter 1: Structures of Aboriginal life at the time of colonisation", "Why saying 'Aborigine' isn't OK: 8 facts about Indigenous people in Australia", "Aboriginality and Identity: Perspectives, Practices and Policies", "Australia Now – Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples", "4704.0 - The Health and Welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, Oct 2010", "Indigenous Socioeconomics Indicators, Benefits and Expenditure", "Australian Aboriginal suicide: The need for an Aboriginal suicidology? Největší procento obyvatel tvoří Austrálci v Severním teriroriu, kde jich je dle sčítání lidu v roce 2016 zhruba 30 %. used ten Y STRs, a method that has been shown to massively underestimate divergence times. Aborigines. Die Etymologie des Namens ist unsicher. und als sehr wichtig betrachtete Frage über die historische und ethnographische Stellung der A. kann jetzt als völlig belanglos gelten. Seit 40.000 Jahren machen die Aborigines Kunst. Dot-Painting, auch Punktmalerei genannt, ist eine der bekanntesten Maltechniken der australischen Ureinwohner, der Aborigines. The effect of this is that the desert people are able to have a higher body temperature without accelerating the activity of the whole of the body, which can be especially detrimental in childhood diseases. Daher sind verschiedene Interpretationen im Umlauf: [21][22], Aboriginal people have lived for tens of thousands of years on the continent of Australia, through its various changes in landmass. Some Aboriginal peoples identify as one of several saltwater, freshwater, rainforest or desert peoples. [8], In a 2001 study, blood samples were collected from some Warlpiri people in the Northern Territory, to study their genetic makeup (which is not representative of all Aboriginal peoples in Australia). Die Kunst der Aborigines, englisch Aboriginal Art genannt, zählt zu „den ältesten kontinuierlichen Kunsttraditionen der Welt“. ", "DNA confirms Aboriginal culture is one of the Earth's oldest", "DNA Study Finds Aboriginal Australians World's Oldest Civilization", "Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes", "Genome-wide data substantiate Holocene gene flow from India to Australia", "Research shows ancient Indian migration to Australia", "Genomic insights into the human population history of Australia and New Guinea [doctoral thesis – abstract]", "Genetic mutation helps Aboriginal people survive tough climate, research finds", "Temperature-responsive release of thyroxine and its environmental adaptation in Australians", "Preferences in terminology when referring to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples", "Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act 1976", "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005", "Tiwi Christianity: Aboriginal histories, Catholic mission and a surprising conversion", "2076.0: Characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2016: Main language spoken at home and English proficiency", "What is Aboriginal English like, and how would you recognise it? Torres Strait Islanders are ethnically and culturally distinct, despite extensive cultural exchange with some of the Aboriginal groups. [9][10][11] This finding is compatible with earlier archaeological finds of human remains near Lake Mungo that date to approximately 40,000 years ago. William Cooper was a founder of the AAL. Seit der Ankunft der Europäer vor rund 250 Jahren hat sich ihr Leben drastisch verändert. Aboriginal people are genetically most similar to the indigenous populations of Papua New Guinea, and more distantly related to groups from East Indonesia. The sea levels rose and isolated Australia (and Tasmania) about 10,000 years ago, but Aborigines and Papuans diverged from each other genetically earlier, about 37,000 years BP, possibly because the remaining land bridge was impassable, and it was this isolation which makes it the world's oldest civilisation. [1] Sie wird von indigenen Australiern, den Aborigines, geschaffen und umfasst einen Zeitraum von 40.000 Jahre alten Felsmalereien bis zu heutiger moderner Kunst, die auf ihrer traditionellen Kultur beruht. Today their numbers are increasing (data from censuses). As of 2016, only 13 traditional Indigenous languages were still being acquired by children,[32] and about another 100 spoken by older generations only. [6], A 2017 paper in Nature evaluated artefacts in Kakadu and concluded "Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago".[7]. Ihre Vorfahren ... Ihre Vorfahren ... Aboriginal Australians - Wikipedia The Warlpiri DNA lacks certain information found in modern Asian genomes, and carries information not found in other genomes, reinforcing the idea of ancient Aboriginal isolation. The ancestors of present-day Aborigines migrated from Asia by sea during the Pleistocene epoch and lived over large sections of the Australian continental shelf when the sea levels were lower and Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea were part of the same landmass. Es gibt verschiedene Überlieferungen, die die Aborigines teils als Gegner, teils als Verbündete der Trojaner beschreiben. It found that the New Guinea and Mamanwa (Philippines area) groups diverged from the Aboriginal about 36,000 years ago (and supporting evidence that these populations are descended from migrants taking an early “southern route” out of Africa, before other groups in the area), and also that the Indian and Australian populations mixed well before European contact, with this gene flow occurring during the Holocene (c. 4,200 years ago). [33] More than 400 distinct Australian Aboriginal peoples have been identified, distinguished by names designating their ancestral languages, dialects, or distinctive speech patterns. The term Aboriginal Australians includes many distinct peoples who have developed across Australia for over 50,000 years. Redd et al. ABORIGINES Entstehung und Entwicklung: Vor 40.000 bis 60.000 Jahren besiedelten sie Australien vom Norden aus Vorfahren stammten aus Afrika , vor 100.000 bis 130.000 Jahren kamen sie über Europa, Asien und entlang der Küste Südostasiens über eine frühere Landbrücke von Indonesien nach Australien. Angenommen wurde auch eine onomatische Entwicklung des Namens Aberrigenes (zu lat. [40][41] The term Aborigines has become somewhat politicised, with declining usage in recent decades, as many consider it offensive "because it has racist connotations from Australia’s colonial past",[42] while others still prefer to be called Aborigine, because Aboriginal has more directly discriminatory legal origins. [citation needed] The idea of the "oldest continuous culture" is based on the geographical isolation of the Aboriginal peoples, with little or no interaction with outside cultures before some contact with Makassan fisherman and Dutch explorers up to 500 years BP. (Torres Strait Islanders are ethnically and culturally distinct,[46] despite extensive cultural exchange with some of the Aboriginal groups,[47] and the Torres Strait Islands are mostly part of Queensland but have a separate governmental status.) A 2007 report by the CSIRO stressed the importance of taking a demand-driven approach to services in desert settlements, and concluded that "if top-down solutions continue to be imposed without appreciating the fundamental drivers of settlement in desert regions, then those solutions will continue to be partial, and ineffective in the long term".[63]. In der Überlieferung erscheinen die Aborigines gemeinsam mit den Trojanern als Stammvolk der Latiner. These issues stem from a variety of different causes unique to indigenous communities, such as historical trauma,[50] socioeconomic disadvantage, and decreased access to education and health care. A few examples are: However these lists are neither exhaustive nor definitive, and there are overlaps. For that reason, he said, more had to be done to assist them: "I make no apologies for writing the book, because there are things which need to be said. Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Islands, and Groote Eylandt, but excluding the Torres Strait Islands. Some Aboriginal people object to being labelled Indigenous, as an artificial and denialist term. Allerdings: Von "den Aborigines" zu sprechen, ist sehr ungenau. [8], In a 2011 genetic study by Morten Rasmussen et al., researchers took a DNA sample from an early-20th-century lock of an Aboriginal person's hair. Der aborigine-stämmige Künstler Harold Thomas, der die Flagge entworfen hatte, machte keine Angaben zur Bedeutung ihrer Elemente. [57], The outstation movement of the 1970s and 1980s, when Aboriginal people moved to tiny remote settlements on traditional land, brought health benefits,[58][59] but funding them proved expensive, training and employment opportunies were not provided in many cases, and support from governments dwindled in the 2000s, particularly in the era of the Howard government. [15], The authors concluded that, although this does not disprove the presence of any Holocene gene flow or non-genetic influences from South Asia at that time, and the appearance of the dingo does provide strong evidence for external contacts, the evidence overall is consistent with a complete lack of gene flow, and points to indigenous origins for the technological and linguistic changes. This study makes Aboriginal Australians one of the oldest living populations in the world and possibly the oldest outside of Africa, confirming they may also have the oldest continuous culture on the planet. lateinischer Text und deutscher Übersetzung, Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aborigines_(Italien)&oldid=208110179, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. Ils Aborigines na furman nagina etnia omogena, mabain sa dividan en differents pievels e … Die heutige Deutung als Ureinwohner (zu lat. The Northern and Southern areas, having richer natural marine and woodland resources, were more densely populated than the Central area.[33]. Aborigines- die Ureinwohner Australiens 1.Begriffserklärung 2.Die Kultur der Aborigines 3.Vorgeschichte 4.Aborigines heute 5.Schlusswort 1. [40], The definition of the term Aboriginal has changed over time and place, with the importance of family lineage, self-identification and community acceptance all being of varying importance. These findings suggest that modern Aborigines are the direct descendants of migrants who left Africa up to 75,000 years ago. Aborigines traditionally used the stars to navigate to where they wanted to go. [citation needed], Most Aboriginal people speak English,[29] with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English (which also has a tangible influence of Aboriginal languages in the phonology and grammatical structure). aberrare „herumirren“), Bezug nehmend auf eine mögliche nomadische Lebensweise, hin zu Aborigines. Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Tasmania, Fraser Island, Hinchinbrook Island, the Tiwi Islands, and Groote Eylandt, but excluding the Torres Strait Islands. Die Ureinwohner selbst bezeichnen sich meist in ihrer jeweiligen Sprache. Im Deutschen verstehen wir den Begriff Aborigines nicht abwertend, so wird er hier auch weiter verwendet. As sea levels rose, the people on the Australian mainland and nearby islands became increasingly isolated, and some were isolated on Tasmania and some of the smaller offshore islands when the land was inundated at the start of the Holocene, the inter-glacial period which started about 11,700 years ago and persists today. Eine antike griechische Bezeichnung für die Aborigines war Βορείγονοι (Boreígonoi „aus dem Norden Herstammende“). This is still the case in the remote outback, where there might not be any other signs or landmarks. [16] The researchers had two theories for this: either some Indians had contact with people in Indonesia who eventually transferred those Indian genes to Aboriginal Australians, or that a group of Indians migrated all the way from India to Australia and intermingled with the locals directly. a.) The term Indigenous Australians refers to Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders collectively. Before extensive European settlement, there were over 250 Aboriginal languages.[3][4]. [19], Aboriginal Australians possess inherited abilities to stand a wide range of environmental temperatures in various ways. So few of our own people as a whole are aware of the position [of Aboriginies]. Celkem tvoří 3,3 % obyvatel Austrálie. These Aboriginal ancestors probably migrated into South Asia and then into Australia, where they stayed, with the result that, outside of Africa, the Aboriginal peoples have occupied the same territory continuously longer than any other human populations. [15], Bergstrom's 2018 doctoral thesis looking at the population of Sahul suggests that other than relatively recent admixture, the populations of the region appear to have been genetically independent from the rest of the world since their divergence about 50,000 years ago. Beschreibung und Bedeutung. Auch das gehört irgendwie zur Traumzeit. The office of the Protector of Aborigines was established pursuant to a recommendation contained in the Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aboriginal Tribes, (British settlements.) This article is about Australian Aboriginal peoples. Knowledge of pre-colonial Aboriginal cultures and societal groupings is still largely dependent on the observers' interpretations, which were filtered through colonial ways of viewing societies.[37]. Aborigines (englais [ˌæbəˈɹɪdʒɪniːz], „indigens originars“) è la denominaziun da la populaziun originara da l’Australia. reported that Papuan and Aboriginal peoples developed distinct markers around 58,000 years BP that distinguished them from the original out-of-Africa migration around 72,000 years BP, pointing to a single migration henceforth untouched by other groups. of the House of Commons.On 31 January 1838, Lord Glenelg, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies sent Governor Gipps the report. When the British came to Australia in 1788, they called these native people “aboriginals”, meaning people who had lived there since the earliest times. The deep divergence time of 50,000+ years with the South Asian chromosome and "the fact that the Aboriginal Australian Cs share a more recent common ancestor with Papuan Cs" excludes any recent genetic contact. [17][18], However, a 2016 study in Current Biology by Anders Bergström et al. Auch die Bezeichnung Indigenous People gibt es. Die Flagge ist horizontal geteilt, oben schwarz und unten rot. This article incorporates text by Anders Bergström et al. In a Letter to the Editor of the West Australian, Cooper wrote "The plea of our league is a fair deal for the dark race." Die Aborigines (englisch [ˌæbəˈɹɪdʒɪniːz], „Ureinwohner“) sind die Ureinwohner Australiens. They were supposed to have descended from their mountain home near Reate (an ancient Sabine town) upon Latium, where they expelled the Siceli and subsequently settled down as Latini under a King Latinus. Die Aborigines ( Engels: [ˌæbəˈɹɪdʒɪniːz] of Indigenous Australians, letterlik: "inheemse Australiërs") is die inheemse bevolking van Australië. This total is increased to more than 800,000 people if the indigenous peoples of the plains in Taiwan are included, pending future official recognition. Aborigines (englisch [ˌæbəˈɹɪdʒɪniːz], „Ureinwohner“) ist eine verbreitete Sammelbezeichnung für die indigenen Völker Australiens. Despite Sahul being a single connected landmass until [8,000 years ago], different groups across Australia are nearly equally related to Papuans, and vice versa, and the two appear to have separated genetically already [about 30,000 years ago]". Sallust beschreibt sie als unkultiviert, andere Quellen beschreiben jedoch ein monarchisch organisiertes Gemeinwesen. Das Wort Aborigines ist englisch, kommt aber aus dem lateinischen und bedeutet soviel wie Ureinwohner. Aboriginere har levet der omkring 50.000 år. The Australian Aborigines' League was established in Melbourne, Australia, in 1933 by William Cooper and others, including Margaret Tucker, Eric Onus, Anna and Caleb Morgan, and Shadrach James. Ihre Vorfahren besiedelten vor etwa 40.000 bis … excluded the Y chromosome as providing evidence for recent gene flow from India into Australia. Es gab viele Clans mit unterschiedlichen Sprachen und Gebräuchen. Die Aborigines besiedelten als erste Völker den australischen Kontinent. Aborigines (griechisch betont Ἀβοριγῖνες), ein mythisches Volk in Mittelitalien, das die Sage mit Aeneas, Latinus, Euander in Verbindung setzt.Die früher viel behandelte (so von Niebuhr, Schwegler u. Über die Motivati… Austrálci, též Aboridžinci, jsou původní obyvatelstvo Austrálie. Aborigines dürfen Tiere jagen, was für andere strafbar ist. [24][25][26][27], In the 2016 Australian Census, Indigenous Australians comprised 3.3% of Australia's population, with 91% of these identifying as Aboriginal only, 5% Torres Strait Islander, and 4% both. Es ist zwischen 40.000 und 60.000 Jahre her, dass die ersten Menschen den Erdteil besiedelten, aus dem später Australien, Neu-Guinea und Tasmanien hervorgingen. Human contact has thus been inferred, and genetic data of two kinds have been proposed to support a gene flow from India to Australia: firstly, signs of South Asian components in Aboriginal Australian genomes, reported on the basis of genome-wide SNP data; and secondly, the existence of a Y chromosome (male) lineage, designated haplogroup C∗, with the most recent common ancestor around 5,000 years ago. [52], In order to combat the increased suicide rate, many researchers have suggested that the inclusion of more cultural aspects into suicide prevention programs would help to combat mental health issues within the community.