They are referred to as PWM (pulse width modulation) and DC (direct current). Hello, any chance of controlling the speed of 4 PIN computer fan directly from ESP8266 (Wemos D1)? The most popular protocol by far is a 25 kHz PWM signal to change fan speed. Typically with 12 VDC applied (no PWM) most small PC type fans output 2 pulses per revolution. It also includes two ways to change the speed of the fan: a. with a quadrature/rotary encoder; Temperature inside the chassis is checked, and if an outside-of-range temperature is detected, fans are set to their maximum speed. In a low-frequency PWM this switching creates some commutation noise. Beginner Full instructions provided 28,636. The PWM control signals are square waves of high frequency, usually 25kHz or above, to make the noise from the fan above the audible human range. The fan blades create mechanical airflow and help to exhaust warm air and intake cool air. The same PWM signal used to control 4-pin fans can be used to drive the mosfet and control 3-pin fan instead. This project describes building a fully-featured 12 V PC fan PWM controller. I had 5 laying around and thought mine as well give it a shot. This also means the range of speed isn’t as accurate and any unused power is essentially wasted as heat. Next is a very crude (but safe) method for the quick test of your 4-wire fan without using a pulse width modulated control signal input. The acronym PWM stems from electrical engineering and stands for pulse width modulation or pulse duration modulation. When at 20 degrees the duty cycle will be circa 20% and at 50 degrees the fan will be fully on. The circuit utilizes the mode 10 PWM phase-correct on timer 1 OCR1A (Pin 9) and ICR1 (Pin 10). with a quadrature/rotary encoder

b. The fans will run at a frequency of about 22Mhz, the duty cycle will change according to temperature. The circuit is the following: You may notice that i have add another resistor to the circuit, the R4. Fans are used to both intake air and to exhaust heated air. For the complete period calculation of a pulse, the total resistance of the potentiometer (in parallel to R3 of course) is calculated. Airflow metrics are typically measured in cubic feet per minute or CFM. 4-Wired Fan Control (PWM) Control a PWM fan with Arduino. A duty cycle measures how long the signal is turned on versus turned off. Due to how they function, the bearings in a PWM fan will last much longer. The PWM fan controllers have many advantages against other rpm fan controllers. Components like the CPU, GPU, and PSU require electricity in order to function and electricity generates heat. Note: If you lower the voltage enough, you may even stall the fan as it doesn’t have enough energy to spin the rotor. High PWM frequency will ensure quiet operation. The specs require a PWM signal with a frequency of 25 kHz (with tolerance, 21-28 kHz), but our usual analogWrite function doesn't output anywhere near that frequency. The fan is only powered when a voltage is present on the power pin. The design can control up to 16 3-pin computer fans. It … The first mishap came when I simply tried to regulate the fan speed with the help of my trusty variable frequency-variable duty cycle 5V PWM module (Tuned to 25kHz/0-100%). iPhone SE or iPhone XR: Which one to buy? There are many types of PC fans like 2 – wire, 3 – wire and 4 – wire. At these speeds, the fans are dead silent, and some … As mentioned above, DC fans are typically 3-wire and have a power, ground, and tachometric or “tach” output. The modulation is a process of varying the parameter of a carrier signal in accordance with the instantaneous value of the message … However if you send 7V to them, you get roughly 60% of the potential speed. As we noted above, most switching isn’t audible due to operating out of a frequency range that humans can perceive. A high frequency PWM controller usually operates above the 20KHz, thus the human ear cannot hear this sound. That isn’t very fast. Thus this pin is free to be used. Many projects that use a temp sensor, but never the most simple thing: control the speed of the fan. No problem... almost... You see, 4-wire fans have internally a switching FET, something that 3-wire and 2-wire fans lack of (see page "How PC Fans work"). That is the whole idea of the PWM generation. This is driven directly to the control wire of the 4-wire fan. By using some timer tricks, we can make it generate 3 PWM signals at the correct frequency. The application was for a internal PC case fan but you can play around with the voltage divider R4/R3 to adjust the duty cycle according to temperature. The following requirements are measured at the PWM (control) pin of the fan cable connector: PWM Frequency: Target frequency 25 kHz, acceptable operational range 21 kHz to 28 kHz Maximum voltage for logic low: VIL = 0.8 V Absolute maximum current sourced: Imax = … Moreover, PWM controllers can achieve very stable and low speeds without the possibility of a fan stall. The route might be different for you. I simply want to control a 4-wired fan (or maybe several) with an Arduino board. The 600 Hz isn’t our issue. From the standpoints of acoustic noise, reliability, and power efficiency, the most preferable method of fan control is the use of high-frequency (>20 kHz) PWM drive. In a first glance, the circuit appears to control the duty cycle of high frequency PWM pulses with a potentiometer. As for the wiring, it doesn't have 4 wires like a standard PWM fan, it has 6. This, according to the position of the potentiometer, the charge period and the discharge period will change, but the complete period of the pulse will always be the charge period plus the discharge period! As you might expect, DC fans are typically louder than PWM fans as they spin at maximum RPM, regardless of perceived temperature. 3-pin pc fan control. Well, almost all fans „die“ if the voltage is lowered under 5V, but with PWM control, the fans can reach really low operation speeds of 300-600 RPM. This is the tricky part. They don’t die literally; they just shut down and stop spinning, and that is why often the declared speed range of the fan can only be achieved by using PWM regulation. The common voltage values are 5V, 12V, 24V, and 48V. If you don’t have a 4-pin header, you won’t be able to modulate your fan speed with PWM. When the PWM signal is high, the motor runs, otherwise, the motor is stationary. Airflow helps to illustrate how much air that a fan can move while static pressure outlines the pressure of the air being moved. Cooler Master MasterFan ARGB and PWM Hub - Fan Connector: 6 Ports x 4 Pin PWM - Fan Rated Voltage: 12V DC - Fan Safety Current: 2.0 A (1 Port)/Total 4.5 A (6 Ports) - RGB Connector: 6 Ports x3 Pin Addressable RGB - RGB Rated Voltage: 5V DC - RGB Safety Current: 2.0 A (1 Port)/Total 4.5A (6 Ports) - Power Connector: SATA - Power Safety Current: 4.5 A (Max) - MFX-ZHHN-1NNN6-R1 - 2 … In contrast, a 100% duty cycle means the fan is always on. Thus, we need to add this FET externally. PWM_OUT is a CMOS output that can be connected directly to most fans’ speed control input as shown in the 4-Wire Fan-Speed Controller graph in Typical Application Circuits. This website is not affiliated with Apple Inc. airflow and static pressure are important metrics, Enjoy WiFi 6 Technology with the TP-Link AX1800 WiFi Router, Now 30% Off, WhatsApp blocks messages until users accept new privacy policy, New rapid antigen test kit from gauss to have iPhone support, Get a beautiful Elago MagSafe charging stand for just $22, Apple Store Portland set to reopen February 22, iOS and iPadOS 14.5 reveal new features, including ‘Scribble’ and revamped app purchase sheet, Apple supplier Foxconn says chip crunch has limited impact, Apple working on MagSafe battery pack for iPhone. It also includes two ways to change the speed of the fan:

a. Both of these fans have their own uses, however it’s important to understand how they function and when to use them. Most DC fans offer no control of their speed (run at 100% speed/voltage at all times) or have a thermostatic (on/off) control switch. It also includes two ways to change the speed of the fan: a. with a quadrature/rotary encoder The problem or caveat when we use PWM is the fan power is being turned on and off at the PWM rate. When the PWM is at zero volts the tachometer out is also at zero volts. Instead of the revolution pulses, the third wire will return the PWM pulses. However, most PWM fans drive the frequency at 22.5 kHz which isn’t audible. Air is a very poor conductor of heat. Score a brand new Razer Opus noise-canceling headphones at 25% off. I have been wondering about this project and how to control my 4 pin PWM fans. The perceived output is then changed by modifying the duty cycle. As we noted above, without fans, your PC would experience thermal throttling due to heat build-up. Being able to control a DC fans voltage value isn’t very common. This fan will not be used in a PC environment, so no point getting a desktop type fan controller. That is precisely what the circuit below will do: (image from There is some information out there. The rest is taken over by the fan controller itself, as the 4-wire fan carries internally the switching FET (see page "How PC Fans work"). The above mentioned spec sheet is from a similar fan (4 wire model), so I can't relay on it 100%. However, most PWM fans drive the frequency at 22.5 kHz … The design can control up to 16 3-pin computer fans. Without them, the aforementioned components could experience thermal throttling, or even damage. The 25kHz target frequency comes straight from the 4-wire PC fan spec (maintained by Intel, I believe). Where-as pressure is rated as mm H2O. male headers (or just solder some wires) … Besides eliminating the need for noisy pulse stretching and the commutation noise associated with low-frequency PWM, it has a much wider control range than linear control. When the temperature drops below a threshold again, the fans are turned back off. The Tach provides a signal as it’s related to speed or revolutions per minute (RPM). The PWM control frequency needs to be 25khz. Just search "4 wire fan arduino" and there's quite a few posts on it, including sample code to set the prescaler frequency so the output PWM is at 25khz. The spikes are EMI from high frequencies in the PWM signal. There are two main types of fans used in computers. There are several methods in which we control the speed of the fan like on/off control, linear control, low frequency PWM and high frequency PWM. Closed Loop high frequency PWM PC Fan Controller This circuit is the natural evolution of the previous High Frequency PWM Fan Controller and the PIC 3-Wire Fan RPM Controller . DC FAN Speed Regulator Circuit DC FAN Motor Speed Controller Regulator Circuit Works ON Principle of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique , By Using This Technique Controlling Of DC Motor Speed is very Smoothly And Noise Free. PWM Frequency: Target frequency 25 kHz, acceptable operational range 21 kHz to 28 kHz Maximum voltage for logic low: VIL = 0.8 V Absolute maximum current sourced: Imax = 5 mA (short circuit current) Had an Arduino Nano feeding a IRLB8721 mosfet to a 12v 120mm pc type fan, using the standard PWM at 500hz and 8 bit, which all worked fine and quietly. The fan has a permanent 12 V supply. They use an integrated circuit to control the speed of a fan … You will get one signal pulse per cycle, the width (in ms) being determined by the duty cycle and the frequency period). Essentially areas where airflow might be blocked by an object. It also… Now the capacitor is charged from the output of the 555 when it is HIGH, and discharge the same way when the output is LOW. In this style of fan control, the fan is either on or off. DC fans or Direct Current fans are computer fans that operate on a fixed voltage value. Where-as PWM fans are 4-pin/4-wire, with the 4th wire being for PWM. As you might expect, the major benefit of a PWM is the overall noise output. Why is PWM so important? Yet, they tend to be difficult in construction when high frequency is required. By manipulating these voltage values, you can effectively alter their speed or RPM. DC Fans are 3-pin/3-wire and have power, ground, and tachometric signals. PWM stands for pulse width modulation. Most newer motherboards have at least one 4-pin PWM header. The frequency values can be adjusted between 125 HZ -- 8 MHZ as well as a variable duty cycle. This control method reduces noise issues and power requirements during periods of low usage, but when the system is operating at capacity, the fan noise can become a problem again. Most newer motherboards have at least one 4-pin PWM header. A 16mhz arduino can do this relatively easily through software. My fan model wasn’t happy to be PWM-controlled i.e. there’s no significant change observed in the rotational speed of the fan even though the duty cycle swept across its scale at every point. The PWM controllers usually generate acoustic noises, when the PWM frequency is within the acoustic spectrum (20Hz to 20KHz). A DC fan requires a minimum voltage value in order to spin continuously. For each cycle. Parts List. 150 ohm resistor can be omitted but it’s there to protect the mosfet. The R4 will prevent the fan from running at very low speeds with the possibility to stall. The base PWM frequency is 25kHz. Your choice between DC or PWM fans is more or less governed by your motherboard. If you want badly to have rpm feedback from a 3-wire fan, you should consider using other circuits: This is the circuit with the modifications to operate with 2 and 3-wire fans in operation: Switching power supply using PWM to control a 3-wire fan with rpm feedback, PWM 3-wire fan controller with rpm feedback (pulse stretching method), Simple fan linear rpm controller with a potentiometer and a transistor, Resistor 4.7 KOhm 1/4 Watt 5% Carbon Film, IRF520 9.2A, 100V, 0.270 Ohm, N-Channel Power MOSFET. Max.. The number of cycles you get per unit time will be determined by the frequency. According to many datasheets, either a TTL input, open collector/open drain can be used for PWM control input signal. You need to have in mind also, that, in case you use a 3-wire fan, the feedback from the third wire cannot be used. Both airflow and static pressure are important metrics that are used to evaluate the overall performance of a fan. fans. Make sure you’re using absolute path. The duty cycle is changed according to the position of the potentiometer. The design can control up to 16 3-pin computer fans. The PWM signal is separate - … Where-as a DC fan will spin at a fixed voltage or RPM regardless of a thermal output. The PWM signal can start or stop the motor, depending on the high and low state of it. Introduction Of PWM. The frequency is calculated from the capacitor itself ( C1 ) as well as from the total resistance of the potentiometer parallel to R3. This project describes building a fully-featured 12 V PC fan PWM controller. PWM fans are useful because they minimize noise output and are more energy efficient than DC fans. A resistor is connected to this pin and the it turns the internal transistor into a switching transistor (inverting amplifier). In this project, a low frequency PWM control of 2 – wire PC fan is designed. If the fan has a PWM speed control input (typically this is a “4-wire” fan), the recommended PWM frequency is usually in the 20kHz to 30kHz range. But, during the charging of the capacitor, the current goes only through D1, and during discharging, the current goes only through D2. With high- frequency PWM, the fan can be run at speeds as low as 10% of full speed, while the same fan may only run at a minimum of 50% of full speed using linear control. The circuit is very easy to follow. Usually the capacitor is charged through a resistor directly connected to the power supply, and discharged through pin 7 (discharging capacitor). Transfered and updated the pwm code to an ESP32 with the same frequency but this time the fan spins ok, but emits a loudish high frequency sound, almost like singing. Unlike a normal 555 astable multivibrator circuit, the output is taken from pin 7. But wait, the PWM signal from the Arduino is only about 600 Hz. A PWM fan works by essentially switching the fan on and off very quickly. Example schematic for a single 12V fan: PWM control. DIY PWM Control for PC Fans: This Instructable describes building a fully-featured 12 V PC fan PWM controller. Where-as the same fan using a PWM controller could spin at much lower RPMs (voltage) without stalling the fan. For example, a 50% duty cycle means the fan is turned on half the time and off the other half. Computer fans are an important component in every computer. These fans will typically have a higher CFM value to compensate. The circuit that i will present to you has all the advantages of the high frequency PWM controllers, but it uses only a 555 timer to generate the pulses. This is the only point that needs of your attention. In order to make use of a fan with PWM, your motherboard needs a PWM header as well as software to interpret the digital signal. For this instructable you will need: Perfboard. I appreciate the reply, but it doesn't answer any of my questions. If you see the internal diagram of a 555 timer, you will see that pin 7 is connected to the discharging capacitor. Actually, the circuit will now generate a minimum duty cycle of around 40%. In a low-frequency PWM this switching creates some commutation noise. PWM fans and/or pumps are found in some CPU coolers and GPU (aka graphics card) coolers. This also means that PWM is more efficient than DC as it only uses the energy it needs in order to cool the system and dissipate heat. Most DC fan manufacturers will outline this value so that you don’t stall your fan. As a result, during the discharging time, pin 7 is logic LOW, while during the charging time pin 7 is logic HIGH. The design can control up to 16 3-pin computer fans. Introduction This project describes building a fully-featured 12 V PC fan PWM controller. The design uses a pair of Dialog GreenPAK™ configurable mixed-signal ICs to control each fan’s duty cycle. With most 12V fans, the lowest voltage value is 6-7V before it stalls. But the discharging is taken over by the output of the 555, as described above. No driving transistor is needed, as we use the internal 555 transistor for this. All you have to do is send a square wave at this frequency to the fan, and the duty cycle will determine the fan speed. But I have never tested this in person. It’s important to remember that by adjusting a fan’s RPM you also affect air volume, pressure, power usage, and noise levels or “fan affinity laws” or “pump laws.”.