For each sentence, the preceding context was also retrieved, limited to five sentences. Because the low number of der examples makes it difficult to arrive at firm conclusions, we only consider the 48 instances with er in the following. Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents. Choice of syntactic construction, 3.3.1. Our vehicles undergo a series of checks and inspections. Since the definite article and the d-pronoun share forms (or are even the same lexical item, as proposed by Wiltschko, 1998), a definite determiner may increase the probability of using the d-pronoun. From general topics to more of what you would expect to find here, has it all. However, this finding is open to alternative explanations. The opposite behavior is found for indefinite NPs and w-words, which are new in the overwhelming majority of cases. Description: A Child Theme for Directory Starter, built to be used with the GeoDirectory plugin to create a Yelp like directory website. In order to approximate the original p-pronoun to d-pronoun ratio, we formed a sample consisting of the complete p-pronoun sample and 18 randomly drawn examples from the d-pronoun sample. Target items were separated from each other by at least two filler items. 51In sum, the antecedent’s definiteness has some predictive value with regard to the choice between p- and d-pronoun when the antecedent is a pronoun or, to a lesser extent, when it is an indefinite NP. Number of mentions of the pronoun’s referent in the preceding context for, Figure 2. Percentages (n) of given vs. new antecedent NPs depending on pronoun type, for proper name antecedents and definite antecedents. thèmes intéressants, La base optimale pour toutes les spécialités à garnir. [C -4] Apropos, ‘Together the three of us flew to Athens. Deutsche Sprache 24: 71-91. 64Twenty-four German native speakers completed a written questionnaire. When the antecedent is a proper name or a definite NP, in contrast, definiteness is of no help in deciding between p- and d-pronoun. Schönmich. The asymmetry is strongest for the syntactic function of the antecedent (84.7% vs. 15.3%) and weakest for the givenness of the antecedent (64.3% vs. 35.7%). May 21, 2019 - is your first and best source for all of the information you’re looking for. Section 4 presents the production experiment. In the configuration used by all prior studies (clause-initial given referent, clause-final new referent), Bader and Portele (2015) found again that p-pronouns prefer subjects as antecedents whereas d-pronouns preferentially refer back to referents that are new and occur in clause-final position. Wild Dogs Productions. Mia Scarcello Photography. Die Personalpronomina “er” vs. “der” und ihre textsemantischen Funktionen. 92,000,000 sentences. As the overview in Ellert (2013: 6) shows, most studies have found that a p-pronoun preferentially takes a subject NP as antecedent, independently of its discourse status or clausal position, whereas the preferred antecedent of a d-pronoun is a discourse-new NP in clause final position, independently of the NP’s syntactic function. 17Sentence fragments starting with a p-pronoun showed again a subject preference. However, they are also there to help students acquire interdisciplinary skills, such as skills in scientific research and self-organisation. 4Arnold (2010) lists three properties of a referent that contribute to its accessibility: recency, givenness, and syntactic prominence. The basic idea is that referring expressions instruct the addressee to retrieve a certain piece of given information from his memory by indicating to him how accessible this piece of information is to him at the current stage of the discourse. Wild Dogs Productions. However, the last context sentence does not make an assertion about the discourse topic, but about the sentence topic, which is then taken up again by a pronoun in the continuation sentence10. The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 2 (2): 143-181. Given that in certain examples both p- and d-pronouns seem to be acceptable, the threshold must be variable or probabilistic in some way. [C -2] Der einzige, der für dieses Gefühl Worte findet, ist, ‘[C -5] And when Jesus died, they hit their breast as a wordless sign of remorse and shame. Discover (and save!) Notre assortiment comprend des gâteaux savoureux, des viennoiseries sucrées et salées, une variété de petits pains et de pains, des produits faits à la main ainsi que des accessoires non alimentaires. Oct 20, 2013 - This Pin was discovered by Lone Hardiker. Er trug ihn so bis ins Tal. We were especially interested in the question whether the corpus finding that a d-pronoun is chosen to refer to a given NP in sentence final position also holds for completions written by participants. Fukumura, K. & Van Gompel, R. 2010. Grammatische Überlegungen zu einer Teiltheorie der Textkohärenz. A Unified Account of the Properties of German Demonstrative Pronouns. We then describe how the corpus examples were extracted and prepared for later analysis. 84We now turn to the data for the d-pronoun. Paper presented at the International Conference “Prominence in Language” (University of Cologne, 15-17 June 2015). 1993. A certain consensus emerging from this literature is that the main functions of p- and d-pronouns must be stated in information-structural terms. Two different properties can increase a referent’s syntactic prominence and thereby make it more accessible. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 58. Sie hat blonde Haare und braune Augen. An inspection of the examples did not provide evidence that the d-pronoun generally goes along with special emphasis, although – as discussed below – in some cases emphasis does indeed seem to play a role. This position is assumed to be the preferred place for topics in general and personal pronouns in particular (Rambow, 1993; Frey, 2004). For example, 87% of the definite NP antecedents of the p-pronoun are subjects, whereas 80% of the definite NP antecedents of the d-pronoun are non-subjects. When this NP occurs within the last context sentence, that is, in the sentence immediately preceding the sentence containing the pronoun, we will call it a local competitor. The strong dominance of the p-pronoun thus causes the models to overgeneralize the use of the p-pronoun, making it rather difficult to correctly predict the use of a d-pronoun. Fraurud, K. 1990. The second major difference is that indefinite antecedents occur much more often with the d-pronoun than with the p-pronoun. All examples were checked and erroneous examples were removed from the sample. Journal of Memory and Language 68 (3): 255-278. 39This section presents the results of the individual properties that were defined above. 29 janv. In order to disentangle givenness and position, Bader and Portele (2015) investigated short texts as in [6]. Er schmiss ihn daraufhin hinaus. Der Mitschüler ärgerte einen Jungen, der eine viel zu große Mütze trug. Since given NPs always occurred sentence-initially and new NPs sentence-finally in their experiment, it is not possible to decide whether the preference observed for the d-pronoun is an effect of givenness or an effect of position. 6 janv. 97A final issue that we want to discuss concerns the finding that d-pronouns are used much less often than p-pronouns when establishing pronominal reference. When only a single potential antecedent is available, reference is not ambiguous and therefore no choice must be made. Nous voudrions effectuer une description ici mais le site que vous consultez ne nous en laisse pas la possibilité. The givenness of these two constituents was also reflected in terms of the definite or indefinite article of the NP. We must leave this as a topic for future research. This was the case in 8 out of the 54 corpus texts where a possessive pronoun was the last expression co-referential with the upcoming sentence-initial pronoun. The three classes with an accessibility value of 1 all occur with a much lower frequency of about 10%, and the three classes with an accessibility value of 2 with an even lower frequency of about 5%. This way, we can let our data decide which NP is the antecedent of the p- or d-pronoun – the possessive pronoun or its antecedent. 8A prototypical example for the use of personal pronouns is given in [2]. The question then is how the speaker nevertheless comes to a decision. We suspect that this is an effect of the prescriptive rule to avoid d-pronouns for human referents. Finally, a result relation holds when the context sentence provides a cause to the event or state of the continuation written by the participants. Since 2007 we cover startups from the point of their first funding. 20 nov. 2019 - La Team Sauvage a dégote rien que pour vous 10 idées de coiffures pour cheveux courts et mi-longs qui vont vous inspirer, sans aucun doute ! Der Wanderer stützte einen Kameraden, der schon sehr alt war. A Google ingyenes szolgáltatása azonnal lefordítja a szavakat, kifejezéseket és weboldalakat a magyar és több mint 100 további nyelv kombinációjában. Kaiser, E. & Trueswell, J. 2003. 80The results presented so far have shown that the choice between p- and d-pronoun is strongly influenced by two of the main factors defining accessibility, namely givenness and syntactic prominence, which itself can be further decomposed into syntactic function and clausal position. Table 10 shows that the antecedent of the possessive pronoun has all three properties in the majority of cases whereas for the possessive pronoun itself this is only true for the property of givenness. A simplified version of this referential scale is shown in [1] (see Ariel [2001] for the complete scale). Thus, as claimed by accessibility theory, accessibility cannot be defined in terms of a single property of the antecedent, but must be considered as a complex property. 22During language production, however, a choice between p- and d-pronoun is necessary whether a competing antecedent is available or not. Meister des Alltags XXL - Das SWR Quiz-Duellmit Enie van de Meiklokjes, Bodo Bach, Alice Hoffmann, Antoine Monot Jr. und den Gästen Anna-Carina Woitschack und Stefan Mross sowie Aminata Belli und Bastian Bielendorfer!Die vier Teams quizzen und kämpfen um die Wette für Spendengelder, die wieder an Projekte der Kinderhilfsaktion Herzenssache gehen. Sep 13, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by Alice Janssen. Despite the numeric difference between given and new antecedents in clause-final position, the interaction between givenness and position did not reach significance. Since most subjects are human whereas most objects are non-human, d-pronouns may more often refer to a non-human referent than p-pronouns. Proper name antecedents of p-pronouns are more often given than new whereas proper name antecedents of d-pronouns are more often new than given. 88A p-pronoun could also have been used in the examples in [18] and [19], but this would have put less emphasis on the referent. Thus, the three major properties defining accessibility discussed so far do not provide a categorical distinction between p-pronoun and d-pronoun, neither alone nor in combination. your own Pins on Pinterest Of these, 901,486 or 95.8% contained the p-pronoun and 39,293 or 4.2% the d-pronoun, resulting in a ratio of 23:1 as in the subset analyzed above. 25 continuations had to be excluded from our analysis: they either started with a definite full lexical NP (n = 5), the alternative demonstrative pronoun dieser/diese/dieses (n = 1), an inanimate referent mentioned in the context instead of the intended referent (n = 5), or a neuter pronoun (das [that]/es [it]; n = 7). MAKE UP FOR EVER . Since the referent of this NP has already been introduced in the sentence before by the indefinite NP einen Clown, this means that the d-pronoun prefers a given NP as antecedent. For example, Fraurud (1990) found that 60.9% of the definite NPs were new in his corpus study. Cliquez pour vous inscrire, Art. For the p-pronoun, a local competitor is present in 35.7% of all cases. In addition, in some cases the preceding context and the target sentence did not form a coherent discourse, reflecting problems with automatically deriving texts from internet sites. Bittner, D. & Dery, J.E. Even if this assumption were correct, the interpretation of the observed preferences in terms of information structure is by no means obligatory. The corpus study is presented in Section 3. Der Koch schubste einen Bäcker, der am Ende der Schlange stand. For both pronouns, definite NPs and proper names together account for the majority of all antecedents (58.5% for the p-pronoun and 66.4% for the d-pronoun). The antecedent of a d-pronoun, in contrast, is typically a new NP that occurs as non-subject in clause-final position. Our analysis was phrased in terms of accessibility theory (Ariel, 1990), which has been fruitfully applied before to the interpretation of p- and d-pronouns. An analysis that takes all properties into account simultaneously is presented in the next section. In D. Bittner & N. Gargarina (eds. Results of the logistic-regression analysis for the corpus data. Instruction: write down a sentence starting with a pronoun referring to the underlined NP. Importantly, however, in slightly more than half of the cases where a d-pronoun is used, no local competitor is present. Before any conclusions can be drawn from this finding, further experiments are necessary in order to see whether this finding, which was obtained in a situation in which participants were not free with regard to the choice of an antecedent phrase, can be confirmed. ‘The cupboard is heavier than the table. We removed these 54 corpus texts from our sample and present a separate analysis for them after we have presented the analysis of the main corpus. The results show a preference for the subject referent when hearing the p-pronoun er. In the first one, a reflexive pronoun is the last co-referential element, as in [8]. The paper concludes with a final discussion in Section 6. The results of the experiment strengthen the conclusion that several factors determine accessibility which in turn governs pronoun choice. Table 6 shows the frequency of a local competitor as well as the frequency of a competitor anywhere within the preceding context. In this respect, pronouns differ from lexical NPs, which often take their antecedent over a longer distance (see Arnold, 2010 for discussion). Alice la Douce. 16.10.2012 - Bethany Hoffman hat diesen Pin entdeckt. 4 As will be discussed later, a p-pronoun can still act as antecedent for a d-pronoun under certain conditions. Since 1999 he was head of the department of “rural area, business administration and support”. In doing so, he pushed him several times.’. There were 174,098 corpus hits for er immediately following the finite verb, which contrasts with the 149,183 hits for er immediately preceding the finite verb. HAARE, WILLIAM HENRY-b. 2015. Mia Scarcello Photography. (2003) did not look at other features of the antecedent, their study leaves open whether properties other than the antecedent’s syntactic function influence the choice between p- and d-pronoun, or even make reference to the antecedent’s syntactic function superfluous. Wiemer, B. 81Given that the accessibility value ranges from 0 to 3, the simplest decision criterion is one that predicts the use of the p-pronoun er when accessibility is high (2 or 3) and the use of the d-pronoun der when accessibility is low (0 or 1). Our corpus studies revealed a number of examples where the d-pronoun refers back to a given antecedent, mainly when the antecedent occurred as object in clause-final position. In this case, the pronoun’s antecedent is discourse new, occurs sentence finally, and is an object. From general topics to more of what you would expect to find here, has it all. Whereas the givenness of an NP can be determined uncontroversially with few exceptions, determining whether an NP is the topic of a sentence or not is often not possible in an objective way, as shown by experiments on inter-annotator agreement (e.g., Cook & Bildhauer, 2013). The last co-referential NP will be called the antecedent NP, with one exception as explained below. As witnessed by the example, this did not prevent the writer from using a d-pronoun for referring to the former German chancellor. Here, the d-pronoun seems to be used for reasons of emphasis. For example, in a sentence with subject-object (SO) order, the subject is always more accessible than the object because it is favored by two of the three defining properties – syntactic function and clausal position. Watson has been ranked among the world's highest-paid actresses by Forbes and Vanity Fair, and was named one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine in 2015. Available online: However, they are also there to help students acquire interdisciplinary skills, such as skills in scientific research and self-organisation. 6 janv. Sie wurde 1879 gegründet A note on coherence relations,,,,,, licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d'Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International, Publication ethics and malpractice statement, Catalogue des 557 revues, null pronoun > pronoun > demonstrative > full noun phrase, [C -2] Gerade als sich der Schatten eines Baumes mit großen, breiten Blättern verflüchtigte, tauchte aus diesem. Afin de vous assister dans cette démarche, nous vous invitons à nous contacter par mail à l'adresse ou nous appeler au numéro du service après-vente non surtaxé inscrit au bas de votre facture. Accessoires et alimentation pour animaux, blog animaux Bosch, P. & Umbach, C. 2007. For canonical subject-initial context sentences, the p-pronoun preferentially refers to the topic and the d-pronoun to the focus. Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson (born 15 April 1990) is an English actress, model, and activist. Definiteness and the Processing of Noun Phrases in Natural Discourse. The existing research concerned with these pronouns has focused on language comprehension, in particular with regard to interpretative preferences in the case of referential ambiguity. Our startup-radar list startups even earlier. 2012. Er war schlecht gelaunt. 1Much of language production is concerned with referring back to entities that were introduced at some earlier point in the ongoing discourse. Finde deine Magie! This contrasts with findings that there is no connection between choice of referential form and coherence relations (e.g., Fukumura & Van Gompel, 2010). 33Because the set of corpus hits was too large to be analyzed completely, we drew a random selection of 500 examples for each pronoun. Duden, richtiges und gutes Deutsch: Wörterbuch der sprachlichen Zweifelsfälle. 13Based on a broad survey of the existing evidence, Bosch (2013: 42) arrives at the generalization in [5], where “DPro” stands for d-pronoun and “PPro” for p-pronoun (see also Hinterwimmer, 2014). Le caramel est recommandé pour les filles avec un teint.. Ahrenholz, B. A journal of linguistics, psycholinguistics and computational linguistics. In this case, a relative decision rule can be used. 6Of special interest for the notion of accessibility are referential expressions that differ in form but not in lexical content. 93In a similar way, we assume that in our experimental texts (see [12]) the given NP of the final context sentence was the sentence topic. For the p-pronoun, the two most frequent definiteness categories are pronoun and definite NP, closely followed by proper name. For the fixed factors, effect coding was used. 29 janv. Joint distribution of the three properties “syntactic function”, “position” and “givenness” of the antecedent of the p-pronoun er and the d-pronoun der. 18To sum up so far, experimental investigations of the interpretation of p- and d-pronouns converge on two conclusions. These three also account for about 90% of all antecedents for the d-pronoun. Although this rule does not in general prevent writers to use d-pronouns for referring to humans, some effect cannot be excluded. Discours 12: 1-24. Most of the existing literature has been concerned with the interpretation of pronouns and has therefore investigated examples that contain two potential antecedents matching the pronoun in morpho-syntactic features. 11The context sentence in [4a] is either a subject-initial or a subject-final sentence. In this case, the NP under consideration is not only an aboutness topic but a discourse topic too. Crystal Rose. Experiment: choice of referential pronouns in subject-object structures, 4.3. Furthermore, there is a kind of parallelism effect. In addition, in five cases the d-pronoun was followed by a verb-final structure and two continuations were incomplete or missing. 3 were here. Percentages of human and non-human referents depending on pronoun type. Pragmatic Aspects of Scrambling and Topicalization in German: A Centering Approach. Thus, the subject pronoun er occurred more often after than before the finite verb. It comes from a furniture store in Belgium.’. Coreference Preferences for Personal Pronouns in German. Available online: Furthermore, the particular preferences found for interpretation can easily lead to a tie. For the d-pronoun, all continuations represent an elaboration of the preceding sentence, but since this number is extremely small (n = 3), we cannot conclude anything from it. The strongest differences were found for two core properties defining accessibility – givenness and syntactic prominence, for which both syntactic function and clausal position had strong effects. given, NP2/Obj. 86Examples of this kind have already been discussed in the prior literature (see Bosch, 2013). 55The final property that we consider is the animacy of the referent that the pronoun refers to. 12Due to the lack of a preceding context, the discourse status of the two NPs in [4] was not explicitly specified. The reason for this is the well-known fact that personal pronouns in object function are severely restricted with regard to their occurrence in the prefield of a main clause, whereas d-pronouns are not restricted in the same way (see Lenerz, 1992). L’étude du corpus est complétée par une expérience de production qui a demandé aux participants de continuer un passage de texte court avec une phrase qui commence soit avec un « p-pronom », soit avec un « d-pronom ». Our corpus sample nevertheless contains a small set of 13 examples where the p-pronoun’s antecedent has an accessibility value of 0. Read "The Rules of Magic. Discover (and save!) In these cases it is still the personal pronoun er that is chosen for the greater part. Barr, D.J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C. & Tily, H.J. Discover (and save!) 96In sum, in cases where a given clause-final object is the antecedent of the d-pronoun, the antecedent can be a topic or not. With about 45%, the largest class is formed by examples where the accessibility score is 0. Zuckerstück Berlin. Crossing the givenness of the underlined antecedent (given or new) and its clausal position (first or last) resulted in four experimental conditions shown in [12] (for reasons of space, both referents are underlined in [12]). La recherche déjà existante concernant ces pronoms s’est concentrée sur la compréhension du langage. A particularly striking example is provided in [17]. This pronoun should therefore be less accessible than the indefinite NP ein Kerl, which has only one feature that decreases accessibility (it is new), but two features that increase accessibility (it is a subject in clause-initial position). Gundel, J.K., Hedberg, N. & Zacharski, R. 1993. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 48. Sieh dir an, was ainur la sorciere (ainurlasorciere) auf Pinterest, der weltweit größten Sammlung von Ideen, entdeckt hat. M.      has a       important price won. Broadly speaking, p-pronouns serve the function of topic continuation whereas d-pronouns signal a topic shift. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal. Miriam: Miriam ist 15 Jahre alt. 92Here, the d-pronoun der is used to refer to Kasimir. 76As can be seen in Table 13, when participants had to refer to the subject of the last context sentence, about half of the cases of a chosen p-pronoun continue the discourse with an elaboration of the event or participants of the previous sentence.